Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Episode Review - United (Enterprise, Season 4)

For those who are new to my episode reviews, you can find the post where I establish my point criteria here

Overview – The Romulan drone uses its emitters to appear like Enterprise as it attacks and destroys a Rigellian vessel. On board the vessel, Trip and Reed do their best to stay alive and sabotage the ship. Meanwhile, aboard the real Enterprise, Archer must deal with the aftermath of the recent battle between the Andorians and the Tellarites, which has left Talas mortally wounded. Shran seeks revenge against the Tellarite ambassador, forcing Archer into a tough situation between allowing his ally to seek revenge or save the peace talks by fighting Shran in a duel to the death. Archer tries to find a way to unite the feuding peoples, save his crewmen on the drone ship, and thwart the Romulans in their attempt at disrupting the peace in the region.

Score: 9/10 – The second part of this exciting story arc continues the action and fun from the first part. Now that we know the Romulans are piloting the drone ship from Romulus, we are given some great insight into the Romulan home world. Malcolm and Tucker are given a real test of wits as they try to sabotage the drone ship while avoiding the Romulan attempts to kill them. We also see the aftermath of the Andorian attack on the Tellarites on Enterprise, which leads to the death of Talas and a duel to the death between Shran and Archer (who offers to substitute for the Tellarite ambassador in an effort to salvage the peace mission). It is a tense moment where the survival of our favorite blue-skinned character is questioned. A unique interpretation of the Code of the Ushan allows the captain to win the contest without killing his opponent (and in doing so, teaches us a little something about Andorian antennae physiology). The coming together of Vulcan, Andorian, and Tellarite vessels to assist Enterprise in stopping the Romulan drone ship is reminiscent of the TNG episode “Redemption, Part 2”, where another fleet is assembled to stop a Romulan plot to disrupt a region of space. It is also a fun foreshadowing of the United Federation of Planets that we will come to know and love. “United” serves as a great continuation of this important story and ends with yet another surprise that gets you ready for the next episode.

Relevance - 2 points. The death of Talas, the second most significant Andorian character, is important here, and will establish the motivation for the duel between Shran and Archer. I am also scoring a point here for the brief yet significant introduction of the Aenar, an albino sub-species of the Andorians. This species will take a more prominent place in the next episode, but it gives us a lot to anticipate.

Continuity - 3 points. There is nothing that contradicts any continuity in this episode. Story wise things proceed smoothly, as does the universe. The Romulans get a bit more screen time, and they seem to be up to their old tricks. Characters are acting as to be expected. Shran, while fiercely loyal to his people, seems to have really grown fond of Archer. Their mutual respect is growing into a solid friendship.

Character Development – 3 points. Archer truly gets some great moments here, which truly shows why he is going to become the President of the UFP in the future. He puts his own life on the line to salvage the alliance and learns enough about Andorian customs that he is able to find a way to honor their customs and not kill Shran. We also see more development between Reed and Tucker as they try to find a way off the Romulan drone ship. The Romulans have Tucker in a certain death situation, and Reed agrees to their demands to save his superior officer and friend.

Social Commentary  2 points. Putting aside differences to work for a greater good is a common theme and speaks to the notion that we are stronger together in spite of our differences (and quite possibly because of them). There is also the idea that sometimes, for the greater good, we must stand against a friend or ally. The only way that Archer could salvage the alliance between adversaries was to put his own life on the line and fight his friend. It also helps to understand other cultures and traditions, as Archer was able to win the contest without killing Shran. He honored the Andorian way and was able to build a foundation that would eventually lead to the start of the United Federation of planets.

Cool Stuff – 2 points. The Ushan duel between Shran and Archer is definitely noteworthy here. The weapons and tradition are cool, and the fight is intense. The ending, where Archer delivers the final blow, leaves us wondering if Shran indeed dies. When it is revealed that Archer only incapacitated Shran, we breathe a selective sigh of relief. The ending also gives a cool surprise as we get our first glimpse of an Aenar, the blind, white Andorian species that appears to be working with the Romulans.

Rank – Admiral (21 points). Action, humor, suspense. This was a fun episode with a lot riding on it. When I watch this episode, I can’t help but feel for what might have been had Enterprise been given at least one more season, but at least we had an excellent story that gave us more Shran and the Andorians.

If you would like to check out my other episode reviews for Enterprise, simply click here.

If you would like to read an episode review from any of the Trek series, click the following link to get to the series catalog. If the episode you want reviewed has not been done yet, then feel free to request it in the comments and I will see what I can do.

Friday, May 4, 2018

Episode Review - Babel One (Enterprise, Season 4)

For those who are new to my episode reviews, you can find the post where I establish my point criteria here

Overview – While transporting a Tellarite delegation to peace talks at Babel One, the Enterprise encounters the wreckage of the Kumari, and rescue Shran and some of his crew. The Andorians claim that it was a Tellarite vessel that attacked them. Tensions rise even further when an Andorian ship attacks Enterprise. As Archer and his crew try to determine what happened, suspicions between the Andorians and Tellarites continue to escalate. The crew discover a strange, alien ship that appears to have the ability to project the appearance of different types of vessels. They learn that the ship is Romulan, and Tucker and Reed beam aboard to investigate. As distrust between the Andorians and Tellarites mounts, matters become violent and Telas, Shran’s lieutenant and mate, is severely injured. By the end of the episode, Tucker and Reed make a startling discovery about the Romulan ship.

Score: 9/10 – “Babel One” is a perfect reason as to why Enterprise was cancelled far too soon. Like many good shows of the day, it often takes a few seasons to really build some steam, and the fourth season of Enterprise was excellent. In this episode, we get what many fans had been asking for, which is a glimpse into the beginnings of the Federation. We also get action, humor, suspense, intrigue, and some twists and turns we were not fully expecting. Shran has always been a popular character, and here Jeffery Combs is given some great scenes. We also get some greater insight into both Andorian and Tellarite culture. Another strength in this episode is how it shows how much Archer has come as a diplomat, reminiscent of the cowboy diplomacy that was often associated with Captain Kirk. T’Pol’s marriage being dissolved is almost treated as an afterthought, and while it is handled in typical T’Pol/Vulcan fashion, I thought it could have been fleshed out a little more. Overall, an excellent episode.

Relevance – 3 points. Of course a point will be scored for Babel, the famed peace location that served as the backdrop to the Original Series classic “Journey to Babel”, which served as our introduction to Spock’s parents. This is one of the things that I enjoyed about Enterprise, in that we were able to weave in much of the Original Series lore. Another point will be scored for the fate of the Kumari, Shran’s ship that he had commanded for several previous episodes. A final point is scored for the advancement in the relationship between Shran and Talas. This relationship will be important for the development of the next episode. If that is not enough, we are given a little tidbit of information from T’Pol, stating that her marriage has officially ended.

Continuity – 3 points. Character continuity is of particular interest here. One scene in particular that shows this is when T’Pol informs her captain that her marriage has ended. Archer expresses sympathy, while T’Pol brushes it aside in her typical fashion. It highlights how far these two have come. Universe continuity is also intact. The Romulans have always been trying to disrupt things from the shadows, and the remote-piloted ship is a perfect example of this. Story wise, everything works here as well.

Character Development – 2 points. While T’Pol’s marriage is dissolved in this episode, there is little else said about it. We also have Tucker and Reed with some action on the Romulan vessel, but aside from how they work together, nothing deeper is provided. No, this episode is mainly about Archer and his growth as a diplomat. We see him wrestle with doubts about their mission, while T’Pol patiently points out that he, Earth, and Vulcan have come a long way in such a short period of time. It highlights the fact that Archer has done a lot to foster relations between species that often were adversarial towards each other. Of course, this is building towards the events of the next episode, but it solidly establishes how much Archer’s leadership skills have grown.

Social Commentary – 1 point. As is typical of some of these action episodes, the excitement comes at the expense of a solid commentary on our present-day world. This is partly due to the fact that “Babel One” is setting up for the events of “United”, which actually carries a stronger message. This is also due to the notion that a lot is happening, and sometimes we just have to tell the story and not worry about saying something profound. We can glean a little something from the importance of working together. Reed and Tucker have to rely on each other as they explore the Romulan vessel, Archer has to teach the Tellarites and Andorians that they have to work together to defeat a common foe, etc. Star Trek is at its best when it makes us think more, but that does not mean that it’s not excellent when it doesn’t.

Cool Stuff – 3 points. One point scored for showing us a cool view of Romulus, which until this point has only been seen via matte paintings. I also scored a point here for the ship, both in design and for it’s part in the story-telling. I loved how it allowed us to see a few different models of ships. And the premise of it being remotely piloted from far away was interesting. I also liked how it was used to sow seeds of distrust among the future founders of the United Federation of Planets. A cool story-twist. Finally, the Tellarites are shown in a way that we have rarely seen, given far more attention than in the past. While the Tellarites are not as iconic as the Vulcans, Klingons, or even the Andorians, they had always been present in the background of Star Trek, and here they are given the spotlight like never before.

Rank – Admiral (21 points). I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again, Enterprise deserved more than it got, and “Babel One” is a perfect example of it. I love how we see how the Tellarites and Andorians are brought together, and we are given a fun ride as the story plays out.

If you would like to check out my other episode reviews for Enterprise, simply click here.

If you would like to read an episode review from any of the Trek series, click the following link to get to the series catalog. If the episode you want reviewed has not been done yet, then feel free to request it in the comments and I will see what I can do.

Thursday, April 26, 2018

Episode Review - Tattoo (Voyager, Season 2)

For those who are new to my episode reviews, you can find the post where I establish my point criteria here

Overview – On an away mission, Chakotay is startled to discover markings that remind him of an expedition that he was on as a child with his father. The markings are followed by visions and leads Chakotay on a personal journey of resolving a past regret. Meanwhile, the Doctor takes it upon himself to experience what his patients endure when they are sick. While he intends it to be a lesson for the rest of the crew to not be so “whiny” about being sick, it soon turns into a lesson on empathy.

Score: 7/10 – I found this to be a great character story that really fleshes out Chakotay (who, up until this episode, has only had “Initiations” to give us some depth to our first officer). The idea that various indigenous cultures have been influenced by extraterrestrial life has been around for a while, and it was interesting to see it come to fruition here. I liked how the story was more than just finding a connection between aliens and Earth, but instead became about Chakotay. Star Trek is always at its best when it is character driven. The B story with the Doctor is also quite entertaining, giving us some a funny moment when Kes reprograms the Doc's illness to turn the tables on his self-righteous attempt to teach the crew a lesson.

Relevance – 2 points. Scoring a point for continuing the story of Ensign Wildman’s pregnancy. This will eventually end with the birth of Naomi. Another point for delving deeper into the reasons that Chakotay joined the Maquis. The reasons as to why Chakotay leaves Starfleet are not given much detail throughout the episode, and “Tattoo” seems to be the most detail that is given on this.

Continuity – 3 points. Scoring a point for story continuity. With two stories here, namely Chakotay’s journey of self-realization and the Doctor’s back-firing attempt to teach the crew a lesson, do not intertwine much beyond a superficial level, each one plays out well. Character continuity is solidly maintained. With Chakotay, his spiritual side had already been developed, and now some much appreciated depth has been added. His reverence to the land fits his character well. The Doctor, meanwhile, is in full Doc mode as he believes that his programming is superior to the human condition, and programs himself a viral infection that will indicate that the crew is quite capable of performing their daily duties while ill (or pregnant). When Kes alters the program to extend the duration of the illness, he responds in a predictable (and funny) manner. Kes, of course, is the best person to teach the Doctor such a lesson, and her motivations for it are on point. As far as universe continuity goes, everything seems to be in place here as well. The idea of the Sky Spirits influencing the “Inheritors”, of who Chakotay is descended from, is a cool addition to Star Trek mythos.

Character Development – 3 points. It’s impossible to not give full marks here. Chakotay doesn’t get much attention in the character development department, and the second season is likely his strongest one with three great episodes focused on him. We see much more depth and detail given to his spiritual side, as well as how it ties in with his joining the Maquis. We see him as a young man and witness some of the tensions between him and his father, and by the end of his story we are made privy to seeing some closure. The Doctor and Kes get some good attention in the B story. The Doctor gets a dose of his own medicine as he tries to show the crew how to work through a cold. Kes has the clever idea of altering the program a bit, which teaches the Doctor a valuable lesson in compassion.

Social Commentary – 2 points. Finding peace with one’s past and heritage is a key message here. Chakotay comes face-to-face with an important feature of his ancestry, and he finally to understand the lessons his father tried to teach him when he was younger. We ourselves often discover a comprehension of the lessons that our parents, teachers, and mentors from our past have tried to teach us much later in life. Typically those lessons come with experience and gained wisdom. As far as the Doctor’s flu story goes, well, we learn a basic lesson on empathy, but it is fairly superficial.

Cool Stuff – 1 point. I must score a point for the Sky Spirits and their story. They give us a fascinating idea as to how a group of indigenous Americans developed into a significant culture. The connection between these aliens and Earth is a fun concept to ponder.

Rank – Captain (18 points). A very solid episode for Voyager’s second season. Chakotay’s fans are definitely wanting to see this episode as it provides our first officer with a cool, almost origin-like story. There is some suspense and intrigue in the mystery of these aliens that are soon identified as the Sky Spirits, but there is also some humor, warmth, and heart-felt connections. It is a shame that more was not done with Chakotay over the years, but this episode is a gem for him.

If you would like to read other reviews from Star Trek: Voyager, click on the link here.

If you would like to read an episode review from any of the Trek series, click the following link to get to the series catalog. If the episode you want reviewed has not been done yet, then feel free to request it in the comments and I will see what I can do.

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Episode Review - The Search Part 2 (Deep Space Nine, Season 3)

For those who are new to my episode reviews, you can find the post where I establish my point criteria here

Overview – After the Defiant is defeated in battle, Odo finds himself and Kira among his own kind. As he learns what it means to be a Changeling, he is overcome with emotions over finding his way home. Meanwhile, Sisko and the rest of his senior officers are rescued and brought back to Deep Space Nine, where the Federation is already in peace negotiations with the representatives of the Dominion. As the peace talks progress, however, Commander Sisko becomes concerned over the concessions that Starfleet is willing to make, and soon finds that not everything is going as he had hoped.

Score: 9/10 – Picking up right where Part 1 left off, Part 2 of this season opener (the first DS9 episode to be directed by Johnathon Frakes, incidentally) continues to be full of intrigue, suspense, discovery, and heart. Two storylines are played out, with it appearing that the main focus is on Sisko and the negotiations with the Dominion. As it turns out, the real story is about Odo finding his people, and the two tales are revealed to be far more intertwined than originally believed. Indeed, the big reveal at the end is that everything that Sisko and his officers experienced were simply recreations in an induced setting. Yes, the entire DS9 story occurred on their minds, making this one of only two episodes where the characters are not actually on the station. Jake, Quark, Garak, Admiral Nechayev, and Michael Eddington do not actually appear in this episode as they are only seen in the recreation. This is good for fans of our resident tailor as Garak is killed near the end of the episode. On its initial run through, it really hit the fans hard when Garak was killed. Some may consider the big reveal at the end as a typical deus ex machina cop out, but I think it worked well. It kept us on our toes for an even bigger reveal, that the Changelings are the Founders of the Dominion. In what could have been just a major turning point for Odo’s character turned out to be a mind-blowing development for the character, and the audience is fooled into thinking that Odo was just a nice sub-plot. In essence, with the end of this episode, we see that the Dominion means business, and the stakes are raised higher than we imagined.

Relevance – 3 points. In the episode “Vortex”, the character Croden calls Odo a changeling. In this episode, the spokesperson of the Founders says that the name “changeling” was indeed used by many solids as a term for their kind, and they adopted it as a means of not allowing the solids to have power over them with that given name. When Commander Sisko meets Borath, they make reference to the events of the second season finale “TheJem’Hadar”, and the character of Eris. Finally, the female Changeling, played by Salome Jens, is introduced here. She is a key figure in the Dominion/Odo story and will return many times. Salome Jens will do a remarkable job with this character, and her introduction here is perfect. There is also important details about the Founders that are established here, most notably the creed that no changeling has ever harmed another. We’ll see that idea come back to haunt us at the end of the season.

Continuity – 3 points. I have to give full marks here. Some may have an issue with how the story is resolved, but it works. We are led to believe that the Dominion is making serious inroads into destabilizing the Alpha Quadrant, when in actuality they are simply gaining intelligence on their new foes. This is consistent with how the Dominion does things (universe continuity) and gives us an exciting roller coaster ride without disrupting the story established so far (story continuity). As for character continuity, there is nothing that comes across as going against anyone’s character. Anything odd from Quark and Jake can be explained away with the explanation that it wasn’t really them (although there really wasn’t anything that was off about them in this story). Sisko and his officers are absolutely acting the way we would expect when facing a Dominion take-over. As for Kira and Odo, it makes perfect sense that Kira would be supportive of her friend, while Odo would be at first overjoyed at being reunited with his people, then frustrated that he could not learn the lessons they wanted him to learn with shape-shifting right at the start. When the truth of his people is revealed, Odo stays true to the one principle that has guided him his whole life: justice. He sees the actions of his people for what they truly are, and he wants no part of it.

Character Development – 3 points. There is a fair amount of insight into the Starfleet officers as they react to the Dominion situation that seems to get worse every minute. While Sisko seems to be the main focus of this, we do see it followed up with Dax, Bashir, and O’Brien. They would do whatever it takes to protect the Alpha Quadrant and the Federation, even if it even if it means turning against them. The real character development comes with Odo. For two seasons we have wondered what his origins are, who his people are, and where he came from. We get the answers sure enough, but they instead turn everything on its head. Odo, much like Worf did in TNG, had to choose between his friends and his people. Justice has always been Odo’s guiding light, and he stayed true to it here. Of course, this sets him up for all kinds of trouble in the years to come, but that is the joy of his character.

Social Commentary – 3 points. Unlike the previous episode, this one has a much stronger sense of social commentary. At what point to you turn your back on that which you held dear to do what is right? For Sisko and the others, it became a question as to whether or not they would turn their backs on Starfleet in order to save the Alpha Quadrant. For Odo, it was turning his back on his people. Sometimes the concept of loyalty is expected to overrule one’s sense of integrity, but that is never the right choice. Indeed, sometimes we have to take the more dangerous and difficult path away from those we think we owe our loyalty to and do the right thing. It is hard, but worth it.

Cool Stuff – 2 points. Scoring a point for the whole virtual reality scenario that allowed the writers to really take the gloves off and hit is with a “What the heck is happening?” story. It’s not often that we get to see a beloved recurring character killed, only to find out that it was all in someone’s head. A second point is scored for the twist that reveals that Odo’s people are the Founders and biggest threat to the Federation since the Borg. This changes everything in a big way, especially for Odo.

Rank – Admiral (23 points). What a way to wrap up the season opener. Odo learns that the people he has been looking for are his friend’s greatest threat. We have a wild story of Sisko rebelling against the Federation that turns out to be a big surprise in the end. Overall, an excellent conclusion to a strong season opener.

If you would like to read other reviews from Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, please click the following link.

If you would like to read an episode review from any of the Trek series, click the following link to get to the series catalog. If the episode you want reviewed has not been done yet, then feel free to request it in the comments and I will see what I can do.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Episode Review - The Search, Part 1 (Deep Space Nine, Season 3)

For those who are new to my episode reviews, you can find the post where I establish my point criteria here

Overview – The crew of DS9 are discussing the threat of the Dominion when a ship decloaks at the station. They are shocked to see that it is commanded by Commander Sisko, and it is a new Federation battleship, the USS Defiant. With the help of a Romulan cloaking device, the Defiant and Sisko’s crew are assigned to make contact with the Founders in an attempt to establish diplomatic relations as well as show the Dominion that they have the ability to defend themselves. With a new Starfleet security chief on the station, Odo is feeling on the outs in his role as head of security on the station, and contemplates resigning. At the request of Kira, he agrees to join the mission. As the crew, with the help of Quark, establish contact with the Karemma, Odo is drawn to a particular region of space on a map, the Omarion Nebula. Dax and O’Brien are captured on a Dominion relay station, and the Defiant continues on its mission. The Defiant comes under attack from Dominion ships, and Odo manages to escape with an unconscious Kira on a shuttle, where he makes his way to the Omarian Nebula, where he makes a startling discovery.

Score: 9/10 – Season 3 sure starts off with a bang in this episode. Many plot points that began in Seasons 1 and 2 are moved ahead here, and there is a lot going on. We get the best action we have seen in a while, and some important elements of DS9’s mythos are established. Most notably we see the USS Defiant, which will become the show’s signature ship. There is great humor and suspense, plus some touching moments. We are given some great character development, especially for fan-favourite Odo. The Dominion is still somewhat of a mystery, and the mystery deepens throughout this episode. Being a two-part episode, we are left on edge with the fate of several characters. What happened to Dax and O’Brien? What is the fate of the Defiant and the crew? And, most importantly, has Odo truly found his people? The only better slot for this episode as a season opener would have been as a season finale.

Relevance – 3 points. There is so much that is relevant in this episode, far more than necessary for the three points given. There is the introduction of the Defiant, which was a much needed ship for the station that was supposed to be the major line of defense for the quadrant. There is also the introduction for future Maquis leader Eddington, starting out as the Starfleet security officer that once again ruffles Odo’s feathers. Sisko shows that his feelings for Bajor have changed, showing us the love that he has for the planet is growing. He is beginning to feel that this is home. We see the follow-up from the episode “Rules of Acquisition” where Quark is sent by the Grand Nagus to establishing trade relations with the Dominion. It is the reason needed to have a place for Quark on the mission. We meet the Karemma for the first time, and we definitely pick up where Season 2 left off. All of this makes the relevance of “The Search” very high.

Continuity – 3 points. Story continuity gets a pass here. They came up with a great explanation about how the Federation was allowed to use a cloaking device in one of their ships. Having the Romulans involved was necessary to get around the treaty between the Romulans and Federation, and having T’Rul on board was a nice feature. Sadly, we do not see this character again (outside of Part II, at least), though it is good that the actress, Martha Hackett, goes on to play Seska in Voyager. Character continuity is also good here. Odo, in particular, is his typical grumpy self when a new security officer from Starfleet is given a larger role is security. His threat of resignation in light of these changes is nothing new. His own frustration is in full force here, with Kira remaining fiercely loyal to him and Sisko being caught in between his respect for the constable and following the wishes of Starfleet. Universe wise, all works here as well.

Character Development – 3 points. Odo surprisingly becomes the central focus of the story, although this is a slow and gradual build. It initially seems that Sisko would receive the bulk of development, and for the first half there is some truth to that. Dax comments that she has never seen Sisko so passionate about anything since the death of his wife, Jennifer. We see that Sisko has come a long way since the first episode, and his growth is refreshing. Odo, however, comes in from the periphery to be given a central focus. His mutual frustration with Starfleet continues to be a thorn in his side, and he again is contemplating resigning. His friendship with Kira is shown again as she goes out of her way to include him. It is when they reach the Gamma Quadrant that Odo’s story starts picking up some steam. When he first sees the Omarian nebula he becomes inexplicably drawn to it. His desire to return home overrules his rational thinking, and the end moments when he is face-to-face with his own people is a large moment for his character.

Social Commentary – 1 point. Odo continues to be the outcast, and at the beginning of this episode he is once again at odds with Starfleet expectations. Those that work with him, especially Commander Sisko, know him, understand him, and value him. It’s the upper bureaucrats that don’t get it, and this causes tension between Sisko and Odo. We ourselves can find that the way we do things seem to work, but others who do not know us may not approve of our actions. This seems to be the theme for Odo in this episode (at the beginning). There is also a theme of the mission that Sisko undertakes: find the Founders, negotiate for peace, and show them that they are not going to be pushed around. The theme is, in essence, “speak softly and carry a big stick”.  Still, the themes within the context of this episode does little to convey any great meaning to the audience, so I really could only score it one point here.

Cool Stuff – 1 point. I have to score a point for the Defiant. When it is in battle we see what this little ship can do. I remember thinking how cool the ship was when it obliterated the first Jem’Hadar vessel. I also like that the Federation now has a cloaking device. While there were many good parts to this episode, there is little else that I can say was really cool.

Rank – Captain (20 points). Season 3 is largely seen as a defining season for DS9, marking a transition from more lacklustre stories (such as the political situation on Bajor) into more tense action with the Dominion. While things really pick up in Season 4, the third season is very important, and the season premier does not disappoint. Both parts of “The Search” are excellent, with Part 1 giving us the Defiant and setting us up for an intriguing part 2.

If you would like to read other reviews from Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, please click the following link.

If you would like to read an episode review from any of the Trek series, click the following link to get to the series catalog. If the episode you want reviewed has not been done yet, then feel free to request it in the comments and I will see what I can do.